In Mexico, the Export Manufacturing Maquiladora Industry emerged in the mid-1960s as an economic response to the rising labor costs in highly industrialized countries like Japan and the United States.

On May 20, 1965, the Policy for the Promotion of the Export Manufacturing Maquiladora Industry was established in the northern region of the country. This was implemented through the Northern Border Industrialization Program by the Federal Government.

With the program, maquiladora companies took on the responsibility of creating employment opportunities, strengthening the country’s trade balance, promoting greater inter-industrial integration, enhancing the competitiveness of the domestic industry, and driving technological development.

In 1966, the program was formalized, and the first industrial park was established in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. This park attracted a maquiladora company dedicated to the manufacturing of televisions. In 1968, the second park was founded in the municipality of Nogales, Sonora, with a company specializing in plastic manufacturing.

By 1973, additional industrial parks had emerged along the northern border of Mexico, with Baja California being particularly notable. The state housed 102 companies distributed across the municipalities of Ensenada, Mexicali, Tecate, and Tijuana. Following Baja California in terms of significance was the state of Tamaulipas, which accommodated 56 industries spread across the municipalities of Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, and Matamoros.

In Sonora, 40 companies were established. In addition to the municipality of Nogales, Agua Prieta and San Luis Río Colorado also became part of the industrial development. In the state of Coahuila, 12 industries were established in the municipalities of Acuña and Piedras Negras.

On March 15, 1971, the regulations for maquiladora activity were added to the Customs Code. In 1972, the first modifications were made, expanding the maquila system to the entire national territory.

Furthermore, the integration of the Working Group for the Export Manufacturing Maquiladora Industry was regulated, with the Secretariat of Economy (formerly SECOFI) presiding over it. However, this group was dissolved by decree on November 13, 1998.

Since 1973, the General Directorate of Statistics (DGE) has been responsible for capturing, integrating, processing, and disseminating information about the main characteristics of the Export Manufacturing Maquiladora Industry by state and municipality. This is carried out through the Subdirectorate of Economic Statistics and the Department of the Industrial Sector.

In 1981, the Secretariat of Programming and Budget, through the General Directorate of Statistics (DGE), published the “Statistics of the Export Manufacturing Maquiladora Industry, 1974-1980” for the first time. Subsequently, the results were published annually.

It is worth mentioning that during the period of 1975-1978, the Working Group for the Export Manufacturing Maquiladora Industry established seven groups for processed products. In 1979, the classification was expanded to twelve groups, leading to the modification of the publication titled “Statistics of the Export Manufacturing Maquiladora Industry, 1975-1984,” which was published in 1986. This publication is considered the first publication by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Informatics (INEGI).



IMMEX strengthens Mexico’s exports and is one of the most dynamic drivers of the national economy, enhancing the competitiveness of companies and generating synergies, particularly with the United States and Canada under the framework of the USMCA.


IMMEX aims to promote two trends: gender equity, by fostering equal rights, responsibilities, and opportunities for women and men, and dual education, acquiring and developing knowledge.


The maquiladora industry has been a pioneer in industrialization programs in Mexico, adding value and positioning itself as an option for attracting private investment, currently driven through nearshoring.


Our country has advantages in international trade, and one of its goals is the creation of 1 million jobs annually.



Torre Reforma Latino
Av. Paseo de la Reforma 296, Piso 14
Col. Juárez, Alc. Cuauhtémoc, 06600, CDMX

contacto@index.org.mx   Phone.: +52 (55) 7316 0198

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